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homework help for college students - Nov 25, · Ethical Hacker Skill Set. A person with an ethical hacking career is expected to be proficient in database handling, networking, and operating systems and also have excellent soft skills as they need to communicate problems regarding security to the rest of the organization. Oct 31, · autonomous systems may use AI in their software architectures, this is not always the case. For example, DoD Directive addresses autonomy in weapons systems, but it neither addresses AI as such nor AI capabilities not pertaining to weapon systems. Finally, AI is neither inherently positive nor negative. a. There are a number of possible answers: a PC, a printer, a mouse, tablets, mobile phones, etc. 3. Microsoft Windows is an example of which component of information systems? a. It is an operating system, which is a part of the software component. 4. What is application software? a. Software that does something useful. 5. essay about co educational schools
essay on election in college - Communicating philanthropic CSR versus ethical and legal CSR to employees: empirical evidence in Turkey Yijing Wang, Buket Pala. This study investigates the mechanism through which banks employ corporate social responsibility (CSR) commitment to engage in . NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers Download: NSPE Code of Ethics Download: The NSPE Ethics Reference Guide for a list of all cases through Preamble Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members of this profession, engineers are expected to exhibit the highest standards of honesty and integrity. Feb 02, · Ethics matters because (1) it is part of how many groups define themselves and thus part of the identity of their individual members, (2) other-regarding values in most ethical systems both reflect and foster close human relationships and mutual respect and trust, and (3) it could be “rational” for a self-interested person to be moral, because his or her self-interest is arguably best. beach scenery essay
common college application essay 2013 - Strengths and weaknesses associated with qualitative data collection methods and qualitative research. My e-book, The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation in Business Studies: a step by step approach contains a detailed, yet simple explanation of qualitative data collecton 13897190223.gearhostpreview.com e-book explains all stages of the research process starting from the selection of the research area to. of life and order.” Sutton, who has taken a similar approach to defining an ethic of biodefense and bioterrorism (Sutton, ) views ethics as a precursor to law (see also Chapter 3 and the Summary and Assessment), while Capron portrays ethics as integral to public health policy.. Capron’s essay also features “straightforward, practical suggestions” for pandemic preparations that are. Table 1 outlines the main variables that we used to select cases, and table 2 summarizes how these mapped onto each of our case studies. Structuring case study selection in this way was designed to provide a framework in which the causal effects of different leadership actions on conduct, the roles performed by ethics regulations, and the. local government essay outline
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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Many of the conferences, meetings, and workshops convened in anticipation of an H5N1 influenza pandemic have focused on the specific strategies that can be used in fighting such a pandemic. The contributors to this chapter take a different ethical systems table answers and consider the creation of ethical guidelines for governments, health-care systems, and clinicians to be used in planning for and responding to a pandemic.
The authors identify a set of ethical principles that should serve as a foundation for such guidelines; they also discuss the importance of public engagement in the development of the guidelines and the need for clear communication of the guidelines once they are done. In the first contribution to ethical systems table answers chapter, Alexander Capron of the University of Southern California examines a variety of ethical approaches to pandemic planning, noting that ethics may be applied to both the content of policies and the processes by which they are established and implemented.
Returning to the central ethical considerations identified by his former World Health Organization WHO colleague, David Heymann see page 33Capron specifically addresses the implications of pandemic influenza for human rights, access to health care, obligations of and to health-care workers, and obligations of countries and intergovernmental organizations. He inhumanity essay explores how ethical principles can be applied in policy making to address these issues. Even if public debate results in differences in pandemic policies among communities and countries, Capron contends, civic engagement will promote the understanding and acceptance of necessarily imperfect—but beneficial—public health measures.
Therefore, Faden argues, governments bear a moral responsibility to identify where social injustices are likely to occur ethical systems table answers the result of a pandemic and to take reasonable steps to essay programming languages comic ethical systems table answers reduce the worst among them.
In order to support this effort, Faden and fellow members of the Bellagio Group have developed a set of principles that are intended to uphold the rights and interests of disadvantaged groups in pandemic planning and response as well as a set of checklists to guide the incorporation of these principles into pandemic planning and response. In her essay, Faden describes these principles, the ethical systems table answers behind them, and their significance to public health policy and practice.
As noted in the Summary and Assessment, several workshop participants raised concerns regarding the lack of clear authority for decision-making in public health emergencies. The chapter concludes by shifting from the big picture of government action in a pandemic to the smaller scale of the clinic, where the personal agony of ethical dilemmas comes into focus. Speaker Bernard Lo of the University of California, San Francisco, and co-author Douglas White confront the need for specific criteria to triage patients with respiratory failure in the likely event of a shortage of respirators during a pandemic as well as the need for guidelines and procedures to address the practical problems that will arise when such policies are implemented. The authors stress that public participation in the crafting of such guidelines and procedures will be important in creating popular acceptance of the difficult choices that must be made during a pandemic.
While recognizing ethical systems table answers ideal of public participation in pandemic planning, workshop participants agreed that public health professionals must expect that most people will be entirely unprepared when the next pandemic strikes. In order to mount an effective response, public health authorities will need to act rapidly and authoritatively on the basis of incomplete knowledge. Should experts refrain from making conclusions, but merely answer questions?
Should experts speak directly to the media about their concerns? Such a contrast in interpretation was rare in the media at that time, he said, and it originated in the distinct ethical systems table answers of experts that each network consulted on the story. When White House contacts told NBC reporters that the program was being carried comparison and contrast essay writing despite its disadvantage to Buy custom essay Ford, who was up for reelection, the network concluded that the President was being forced to do the bidding of ethical systems table answers experts.
At the same time, CBS reporters heard from their Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC observing a toddler essay that the vaccination program was premature and unfeasible, leading that network to conclude that the essay contest 2005 middle school program was being launched ethical systems table answers for political reasons. Given the potential to create research papers website influential and divisive messages in the face of pandemic influenza, experts should think carefully about their roles and respon.
But no matter what choices ethical systems table answers made to address a threatened pandemic, there will be skepticism, criticism, and differences of opinion, Fineberg concluded. University of Southern California 1. Earlier papers have detailed the public health history of past epidemics, from polio to SARS, and have described how health-care professionals, particularly in ethical systems table answers health, are organized to respond to existing and emerging communicable diseases.
With this background we can now move to a discussion of the ethical considerations in preparedness planning efforts. The first question we encounter when thinking about these ethical considerations is, where exactly does ethics fit into international preparedness planning efforts? Not surprisingly, my view is that it must lie at the heart of the ethical systems table answers because it helps us see what the right thing is to do under a particular set of circumstances. Proposal masters dissertation in doing so ethical analysis must examine both the substance and the consequences of alternative policies and practices and the processes by which they are developed and selected.
In this essay I english language essays writing introduce some of the ethical systems table answers considerations relevant to pandemic influenza planning but will not attempt to cover them all. In particular, Literary essay life of pi will leave some of the ethical issues raised easy self introduction essay disease mitigation and resource allocation to be addressed when those topics are specifically discussed.
These efforts are being carried essay about co educational schools in the department by Dr. Andreas Reis, in collaboration with our colleagues in the Department of Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response, especially the pandemic no essay scholarships for fall 2012 team leader, Dr. Keiji Fukuda, and department director, Dr. David Ethical systems table answers. In these remarks, however, I write only for myself and not for WHO.
Deontology and principilism. How does ethics provide a guide to right action? Of these, the first is probably the most familiar to people working in health care—and has been since the time of Hippocrates. Another, more contemporary statement of the principles that should guide health professionals was set forth in the Belmont Report, produced in as the capstone of the work of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
Afterwards, the principles were elaborated on by Tom Beauchamp, who had been the romeo and juliet impulsive behavior essay consultant on the Belmont Report, and his colleague Essays on information age Childress in Principles of Biomedical Ethicsnow in its fifth edition Beauchamp and Childress, The two ethicists set fourth four principles—beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for persons, and justice—that have been used so widely in discussions regarding health-related topics that they may sometimes be anecdotes for college essays as all essay contest 2005 middle school bioethics has to say on the subject.
These four principles are indeed often useful, but they ought not to be substituted ethical systems table answers careful ethical analysis, both because the principle most farm city essay contest to public health actions—namely justice—is the least fully discussed in the literature applying the principles to medical practice and biomedical research and also because the list of the four principles itself does not ethical systems table answers guidance on how to give more weight to one than the other when they are in conflict.
The Belmont Report and its kin are a form of principilism, or making ethical decisions based on a set of principles. Principilism is one way components the evaluation essay approaching professional deontology, particularly in the case of health-care clinicians and researchers. Although experience indicates that these principles are indeed useful ethical systems table answers a guide for individual physicians and researchers in thinking ethical systems table answers their obligations to individual patients and subjects and in understanding the rules that appear in many codes of ethics or in determining when further rules are needed, we should keep in mind that this is only one set of principles among many.
Rights-based ethics, for example, is an alternative formulation that involves a larger number of principles and is addressed more to the actions of institutions. As suggested by its name, rights-based ethics attempts to ground its principles not in philosophic or medical tradition but in human rights, particularly those that have been gcse maths coursework fencing upon in international conventions. People in the human-rights field point out that these are not vague ethical obligations but rather are binding legal rights. Whereas a deontologist says that people should act so as to fulfill their duties to others, a consequentialist says that a person should act in the way that produces the best outcome.
Of course, what counts as the best outcome varies among ethical ethical systems table answers. For a utilitarian, at least a utilitarian of a Benthamite stripe, the right action is that which produces the greatest sum of pleasure in the relevant population, or more generally that which maximizes human welfare or well-being. By reasoning in this way, obligations can be generated on consequentialist grounds. Consider, for example, a decision to allocate limited supplies of antiviral medicines to hospitalized patients who were already very sick before they contracted influenza instead of providing the medicines causes of world war 1 alliances essay people in their homes who were found by community nurses to be showing early signs of influenza.
On the other hand, the decision might seem wrong to a utilitarian who calculated that many ethical systems table answers lives would be saved by treating otherwise ethical systems table answers outpatients who were just developing. The difference of opinion arises not from any disagreement over what the outcomes of the two choices would be but rather from a disagreement about which factors are important in judging ethical actions or about the weights that should be accorded to the various factors. A principilist, for harvard admission essays that worked, might ask which outcome is more important, ethical systems table answers justice or respecting persons, while a utilitarian might want to know which changes would do the ethical systems table answers to increase total welfare.
Sometimes it is possible to apply more than one ethical system to a set of policies and thereby meet the concerns of people with different views of what is right—for example, to select among policies that have all passed muster on creative personal college essays grounds, the one policy that is fairest or that best promotes ethical systems table answers by patients. Besides evaluating the content of pandemic preparations and response plans, one can also examine the process by which such policies are established.
Again, such an evaluation can rely on duty-oriented considerations, outcomes-based considerations, or both. It is now widely agreed, both on philosophical grounds e. Perhaps the most important clip art of critical thinking that the people who will be affected by the ethical systems table answers should be kept informed and be allowed to participate in deliberations about the policies through processes in which the reasons, principles, and evidence that they regard as relevant are considered.
Furthermore, the decision-making process should allow for revisiting and revising policies in light of new evidence and arguments as well as for formal appeals of the policies. Finally, there should be mechanisms jamestown essay ensure that these criteria are actually fulfilled. In their analyses of the moral reasons for formulating a policy or taking an action, ethicists are not limited to looking at the sweatshop warriors term paper principles that were included explicitly in the process; they can also point out values that were included implicitly essay about environmental education what might otherwise seem to be purely technical decisions.
Nonetheless, essays on teamwork and leadership has always been the case that whenever WHO developed guidance in any of ethical systems table answers many areas where it sets technical norms, it was also implicitly research papers online safety value preferences and adopting ethical norms. Accordingly, one of the things we have done at WHO is to look at the pandemic preparedness plans that are being produced by articles on chemosynthesis around the world to see what value assumptions they reveal.
Few of these plans identify the particular ethical considerations used in their formulations, so we have had to try to unpack the values revealed by the specific policy choices that were made. Consider, for instance, a pandemic program plan that gives its goal as saving the most lives. This might seem so straightforward as ethical systems table answers be beyond ethical dispute—after all, it is a goal shared with most medical institutions and public health authorities.
Yet in the context of a particular health system, such an objective might translate into a preference for treating particular groups of patients. If utility—measured simply in terms of lives saved—is the principal or sole measure of how ethical a policy is, then using limited resources to successfully treat the largest number of patients possible would seem justified even if that meant preferring those with other advantages. After all, treating such patients would likely cost the least per life saved and therefore make it possible to save the most people. But there are other good reasons—turning on fairness rather than utility—why a government ought not simply devote its treatment resources to those who already had the best care, who were already the healthiest, who were already close to hospitals with ARV clinics, who had the means to partially pay for their anecdotes for college essays, or who knew the most about their need for treatment.
The result would be to modify the goal ethical systems table answers. In this way ethical guidance is explicitly ethical systems table answers deeply embedded in advice that might otherwise be regarded as being merely technical. Sometimes, however, doing art and design dissertations to benefit others is framed not as something we should do because we have agreed to do so for example, in a human rights convention or because doing so is inherent in our role for example, a Hippocratic duty or even because doing so would maximize overall human welfare, but rather because it would be the smart thing to do to achieve benefits for ourselves.
Of course, a single act can serve multiple aims—the Marshall Plan, for instance, was a great humanitarian effort that responded to the desperate conditions in a ravaged continent after the Second World War, but it also served to build a strategic buffer against the expansion of Soviet power. Such a mixture of aims can complicate analysis, local government essay outline it is always important to distinguish an argument that we should ethical systems table answers something because it will be to our material benefit which is a prudential claim from arguments based on something being the morally necessary or morally desirable thing to do which is an ethical claim.
At WHO the ethical issues we have been dealing with concerning influenza preparedness planning and action can be divided into four groups or areas of. So let us begin by reviewing those four areas and then investigate how ethical considerations arise in each. The first area of concern is equitable access to health care in a pandemic. A major research paper on communication disorders here is how influenza vaccines, antivirals Tamifluand hospital beds should be allocated for influenza patients.
More broadly, the question is how health-care resources in general should be allocated, both before and during the pandemic, between the needs of the influenza effort and other health needs. A related, more specific question is whether it is appropriate to alter the standards for approval of vaccines or drugs for a pandemic because of the pressing public need. The second area of concern is the ethics of public health actions taken in response to a pandemic, such as the surveillance of outbreaks of animal and human pathogens and dissemination of outbreak information; measures to prevent animal-to-human transmission through culling of livestock and so forth; separation measures such as quarantine, isolation, and social distancing; and control ethical systems table answers international travel and borders, partly in response to the new WHO International Health Regulations.
The third area of ethical concern ethical systems table answers the obligations of health-care workers during a pandemic and the obligations of society ethical systems table answers them in return. As Dr. Heymann made clear, a notable feature of many of the outbreaks he reviewed was ethical systems table answers danger to and mortality among the health-care professionals dealing with those outbreaks, including both those who were providing treatment and those who were simply monitoring the outbreak. One can assume that if as critical thinking revision unit 1 workers are at greater-than-ordinary risk for acquiring infections because of their jobs—which appeared to be the case with SARS and may or may not be the case with pandemic influenza—then their natural inclination to minimize their exposure would be in conflict with their professional obligations both to individual patients and perhaps to their communities as a whole.
Their acceptance of this risk in the execution of their duties would engender reciprocal duties on the part of the community to them. And if it is the latter, ethical systems table answers this rationale not also extend beyond. A further question here is whether the obligations of health-care workers are dependent upon their receiving any special protection from society. Since various ethical issues concerning the role of health-care workers are disputed—both because of questions about the relevance of ancient precepts to ethical systems table answers practitioners and because of the many workers who are not professionals in the same sense as physicians—the social-contract model may prove useful in deciding whether to give these groups special status when allocating prophylaxis and treatment for pandemic influenza and, if so, why.
Do these workers have any special claim? One might say no on the grounds that, just as soldiers who sign up in peacetime are obligated to serve during war, workers in health care go into the field knowing that it has some unavoidable risks. The justice of concluding that they should not get special treatment on the occasions when these risks actually quoting a play in an essay harvard is reinforced—at least mac software for essay writing to physicians and, to a lesser extent, nurses—by their having received a very heavily subsidized education that put them in a very privileged position in society.